Drug Addiction: What Is It ?

You may be hooked emotionally and psychologically. You may have a physiological dependence, too. If you have a drug addiction — whether to a legal or illegal drug — you have intense cravings for it. You want to use the drug again and again. When you stop taking it, you may have unpleasant physical reactions.

While not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted, many people do. Drug addiction involves compulsively seeking to use a substance, regardless of the potentially negative social, psychological and physical consequences. Certain drugs, such as narcotics and cocaine, are more likely to cause physical dependence than are other drugs.

Breaking a drug addiction is difficult, but not impossible. Support from your doctor, family, friends and others who have a drug addiction, as well as inpatient or outpatient drug addiction treatment, may help you beat your drug dependence.

The range of drugs to which a person can become addicted is vast. These include:

    • Cannabis: Cannabis compounds are found in marijuana and hashish.


    • Central nervous system (CNS) depressants: Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are some of the most popular examples of central nervous system depressants.


      • Phenobarbital, amobarbital (Amytal ®) and secobarbital (Seconal ®) are examples of barbiturates.


      • Benzodiazepines include tranquilizers such as diazepam (Valium ®), alprazolam (Xanax ®), oxazepam (Serax ®), lorazepam (Ativan ®), clonazepam (Klonopin ®) and chlordiazepoxide (Librium ®).


    • Central nervous system stimulants. This class of drugs includes amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin).


    • Designer drugs. Synthetic compounds, such as Ecstasy, which has both amphetamine-like and hallucinogenic effects, are included in this category.


    • Hallucinogens. LSD, phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine (special K) are examples of hallucinogens.


    • Inhalants. Glue, paint, solvents and nitrous oxide can all be used as inhalant drugs.


  • Opioids. Opioids are narcotic, painkilling drugs produced naturally from opium or made synthetically. This class of drugs includes heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone and oxycodone (Oxycontin ®).

Drug Addiction is characterized by compulsive–at times uncontrollable–drug craving, seeking, and use that persists even in the face of extremely negative consequences. For many people, drug addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after long periods of abstinence.

The path to drug addiction begins with the act of taking drugs. Overtime, a person’s ability to choose not to take drugs can become compromised. Drug seeking becomes compulsive, in large part as a result of the effects of prolonged drug use on brain functioning and, thus, on behavior.

The compulsion to use drugs can take over the individual’s life. Addiction often involves not only compulsive drug taking but also a wide range of dysfunctional behaviors that can interfere with normal functioning in the family, the workplace, and the broader community. Addiction also can place people at increased risk for a wide variety of other illnesses. These illnesses can be brought on by behaviors, such as poor living and health habits, that often accompany life as an addict, or because of toxic effects of the drugs themselves.

Because addiction has so many dimensions and disrupts so many aspects of an individual’s life, treatment for this illness is never simple. Drug rehabs must help the individual stop using drugs and maintain a drug-free lifestyle, while achieving productive functioning in the family, at work, and in society. Effective drug abuse and drug rehab treatment programs typically incorporate many components, each directed to a particular aspect of the illness and its consequences.

Three decades of scientific research and clinical practice have yielded a variety of effective approaches to drug addiction treatment. Extensive data document that drug addiction treatment is as effective as are treatments for most other similarly chronic medical conditions. In spite of scientific evidence that establishes the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment, many people believe that treatment is ineffective. In part, this is because of unrealistic expectations. Many people equate addiction with simply using drugs and therefore expect that addiction should be cured quickly, and if it is not, rehab is a failure. In reality, because addiction is a chronic disorder, the ultimate goal of long-term abstinence often requires sustained and repeated treatment episodes.